Most Expensive Jewel

The world of precious gems is not just about sparkling beauty and timeless elegance; it's also where extravagance meets rarity. The title of the most expensive jewel is a coveted and constantly contested accolade, often held by visually stunning stones and steeped in history and rarity. 

These jewels transcend their material value, carrying stories of empires, thefts, curses, and the incredible human desire to possess the pinnacle of natural beauty and unparalleled worth. Exploring the most expensive jewels offers a glimpse into a fascinating intersection of geology, history, and luxury, captivating the imaginations of collectors, historians, and the public alike.

Now let's start learning more about the most expensive jewelry of all time and their incredible prices through the article below.

What Is Expensive Jewel?

Before discussing the most expensive jewel, let's clarify what fine jewelry means. You've likely had or inherited some costume jewelry at some point in your life. An expensive jewel is usually defined by its rarity, historical significance, size, clarity, and unique attributes, distinguishing it from more common gemstones. 

Rarity plays a pivotal role; the fewer the gemstones available, the higher the demand and price. Historical significance can also significantly amplify a jewel's value, primarily if historical figures have owned it or have been part of royal collections. 

Additionally, the size and clarity of a gem are critical; larger stones with fewer imperfections are far more rare and, thus, more valuable. Unique attributes, such as an unusual color or a rare natural phenomenon within the stone, can further enhance its desirability and cost.

Expensive jewels are not merely commodities but symbols of luxury and sophistication. They often become the centerpieces of jewelry collections and are sought after by collectors and enthusiasts worldwide.

Beyond their physical beauty and monetary value, these jewels carry stories and legends that add to their allure. The craftsmanship in cutting and setting each piece also contributes to its overall value, requiring precision and artistry to highlight the gem's natural beauty to its fullest extent.

An expensive jewel represents the pinnacle of natural artistry, human craftsmanship, and the rich tapestry of history, making each piece a treasure beyond its monetary worth.

What Are The Occasions For Using This Expensive Jewel?

Expensive jewels aren't something you wear daily; they're saved for special moments that need a mix of elegance, status, and meaning. You might wear these treasures for various occasions, marking personal milestones or public celebrations.

  • Weddings and engagements: 
  • The most common occasions for opulent jewels, weddings, and engagements symbolize love, commitment, and the beginning of a new chapter. An expensive jewel, especially in the form of engagement rings or bridal sets, embodies the significance of these moments and is treasured as a family heirloom.

  • Formal galas and state dinners: 
  • These high-profile events are where luxury and sophistication take center stage. Attendees often adorn themselves with their most exquisite jewels to complement formal attire, showcasing their taste and social status.

  • Award ceremonies: 
  • Celebrities and distinguished guests at events such as the Oscars or the Grammys use expensive jewels to make a statement on the red carpet, often borrowing pieces from high-end jewelers to add a touch of glamour to their appearance.

  • Anniversaries and special family events: 
  • Celebrating milestones such as significant anniversaries, birthdays, or other memorable family gatherings often means wearing jewels that have sentimental value and symbolize family heritage.

  • Royal events and ceremonies: 
  • In monarchies, jewels play a crucial part in royal attire for events like coronations, state banquets, and official visits, where the regalia and ornaments worn are rich in history and symbolism.

    Top 13 Most Expensive Jewel

    We’ve known what expensive jewel is and when we can use it. Now, let's explore a selection of the world's most expensive jewel and uncover the stories behind their hefty price tags!

    • Koh-I-Noor

    • Price: $10 Billion - $20 Billion

    The Koh-I-Noor, meaning "Mountain of Light" in Persian, stands as one of the most renowned diamonds globally due to its legendary status. It is a stunning gemstone that has been part of the crown jewels of several empires throughout history, tracing a turbulent path through the hands of Mughal emperors, Iranian warriors, Afghan rulers, and finally, the British monarchy. 

    Now part of the British Crown Jewels, this 105.6-carat diamond is renowned for its astonishing size and beauty and its rich history steeped in conquest and intrigue. Symbolically, the Koh-I-Noor represents the might and prestige of the empires that possessed it. 

    It is a testament to the complex history of colonialism, showcasing the spoils of empire and the shifting power dynamics among nations over centuries. To many, it also embodies the controversies surrounding ownership and cultural heritage, sparking debates about the ethics of colonial acquisitions and the calls for restitution to its country of origin.


    The Koh-I-Noor is different from a gemstone that is seen regularly used. Its significance and historical value confine it to the most secure and respectful settings. It is on display with the Crown Jewels in the Tower of London, which attracts visitors from around the globe and serves as a captivating piece of world history. 

    The diamond’s rare public appearances are limited to occasions that mark significant national ceremonies or royal events, solidifying its status as an emblem of royal lineage and national pride. Wearing the Koh-I-Noor, mainly as part of the crown jewels, symbolizes a deep connection to the heritage and continuing legacy of the British monarchy.

    • The Hope Diamond

  • Price: $250 Million
  • The Hope Diamond, a gem of unparalleled fame and mystery, holds a captivating place in the annals of history and gemology. Weighing in at an astonishing 45.52 carats, its deep, indigo-blue hue, accentuated by its unique glowing red phosphorescence, sets it apart from all other jewels. 

    Originating from the Golconda mines of India, a source of the most esteemed diamonds in the world, the Hope Diamond's illustrious past is intertwined with royalty, theft, and tales of curse and misfortune, capturing the imaginations of historians, jewelers, and the public alike.

    Symbolically, The Hope Diamond transcends its material value, embodying the dualities of human desire: the quest for beauty and the lure of the forbidden. Its storied past and rumored curse have made it an emblem of the mysteries and perils that often accompany great wealth and power.

    Yet, its continued allure speaks to the irresistible draw of beauty and the hope that such a magnificent creation inspires in the hearts of those who behold it. Reserved for the most hallowed halls and exclusive exhibitions, The Hope Diamond's appearances are rare and eagerly anticipated events. 


    Its home, the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, allows it to be admired by millions, cementing its status as a cultural and historical treasure. The diamond is more than a showpiece; it is an educational tool, shedding light on the geological processes that create such wonders and the complex human history that shapes their story. 

    Wearing The Hope Diamond, although a privilege granted to very few, signifies a profound connection to the tapestry of history, embodying the timeless intrigue of one of the world's most famous gems.

    • The Heritage In Bloom Necklace

    • Price: $200 Million

    The Heritage In Bloom Necklace stands as a monumental masterpiece in high jewelry, embodying a synthesis of tradition, innovation, and sheer artistry. This breathtaking piece was created using diamonds extracted from the Cullinan mine, the same source as the storied jewels in the British Crown Jewels collection. 

    The necklace features a staggering array of diamonds, meticulously arranged to form blossoms and butterflies, symbolizing rebirth and transformation. With over a hundred carats of diamonds set in a design that can be worn in 27 ways, it offers unparalleled versatility and elegance.

    On a symbolic level, The Heritage In Bloom Necklace represents the enduring legacy of beauty handed down through generations. Inspired by nature's perpetual renewal, its design echoes themes of family, heritage, and the passage of time. 

    With diamonds that illuminate with every movement, it captures the essence of life's fleeting moments of beauty, forever encapsulated in a tangible form. This piece is more than jewelry; it conveys timeless values and the bonds that connect us.

    Reserved for the most prestigious events, The Heritage In Bloom Necklace graces the necks of those who are not only connoisseurs of fine jewelry but also guardians of its story. It is showcased at the most exclusive gatherings, state dinners, and royal events, where those with a discerning eye for unique treasures can appreciate its history and artistry. 

    Wearing The Heritage In Bloom Necklace is a privilege, offering both a bridge to the past and a beacon for the future, embodying the luxury of timeless elegance and the depth of personal legacy.

    • Peacock Brooch By Graff Diamonds

    • Price: $100 Million

    The Peacock Brooch by Graff Diamonds is a dazzling embodiment of luxury, creativity, and the timeless allure of nature's splendor. Crafted with meticulous attention to detail, this masterpiece features an array of diamonds totaling over 120 carats, arranged to mimic the vibrant plumage of a peacock. 

    This brooch is not just a piece of jewelry; it is a work of art, showcasing a stunning spectrum of colors from green to blue, with a mesmerizing 20.02-carat fancy deep blue diamond at its heart, embodying the essence of rarity and beauty.

    Symbolically, the Peacock Brooch conveys a message of renewal, immortality, and integrity, drawing from the cultural significance of the peacock across various traditions. It represents the wearer’s undying love for beauty, courage to stand out, and a celebration of life’s vibrant diversity.

    With its intricate design and symbolic depth, the brooch transcends mere adornment to become a personal emblem of the wearer's identity and values. The Peacock Brooch is showcased in settings that are as exceptional as the piece itself. 

    Its splendor is best suited for the grandest occasions, from exclusive art galas and high-profile charity balls to private exhibitions of the finest jewelry collections. It commands attention and sparks conversation, making it ideal for moments that celebrate individual style and the profound connection between art, nature, and humanity.

    Wearing the Peacock Brooch declares one’s appreciation for unparalleled craftsmanship and the timeless beauty that art and nature bestow.

    • Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond

    • Price: $80 Million

    The Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond, with its deep blue hue and illustrious history, stands as a beacon of luxury and mystery in the world of precious gemstones. Initially part of the Bavarian Crown Jewels, this stunning diamond boasts a weight of 31.06 carats, making it one of the most significant historic blue diamonds globally. 

    Its color, a mesmerizing deep blue akin to the famed Hope Diamond, has captivated the imaginations of jewelers and collectors for centuries. The gem's pedigree includes ownership by various European royals before its acquisition and a slight recut by the renowned diamond dealer Laurence Graff, enhancing its clarity and color but sparking controversy over altering a piece of history.

    Symbolically, the Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond represents the pinnacle of regal legacy and the enduring quest for beauty in its most exquisite forms. Its rich color is often associated with royalty, stability, and wisdom, making it a profound symbol of noble power and timeless elegance. The allure of its blue hues has been likened to the vastness of the heavens, evoking a sense of wonder and infinite possibility.

    The Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond is far more than a mere adornment; it is a masterpiece of nature's artistry, sought after for its historical significance, breathtaking beauty, and meticulous skill evident in its cut. It is rarely worn but featured in exhibitions and private showings, where fans and connoisseurs admire it.

    The diamond transcends its material value, symbolizing human fascination with the extraordinary and the eternal quest for perfection. It embodies the zenith of gemological achievement and the story of human history, culture, and partisanship, making it a priceless treasure in the annals of the world's most famous jewels.

    • The Pink Star

    • Price: $71.2 Million

    The Pink Star garners admiration as one of the world's most exceptional gemstones, renowned for its stunning size, unparalleled beauty, and rare color. This exquisite diamond, weighing 59.60 carats, boasts a vivid pink hue that places it among the most extraordinary jewels on earth. 

    Originating from the depths of the African mines, its discovery marked a momentous occasion in the world of fine jewelry. The Pink Star’s impeccable cut and clarity amplify its brilliance, making it a spectacle of nature's artistry.

    Symbolically, The Pink Star embodies the essence of rarity, strength, and the enduring power of beauty. Its pink color, often associated with love, grace, and compassion, adds meaning to an already captivating treasure. This gem is more than a statement of wealth; it is a testament to the cherished moments and the profound emotions it represents.

    Due to its unparalleled splendor, The Pink Star is destined for appearances where its presence can be as impactful as the event itself. It graces the finest galas, auctions, and private viewings, making it a focal point of admiration and discussion. 

    Owning or wearing The Pink Star is a privilege and a responsibility to uphold the legacy of one of nature's most remarkable creations. This diamond is not merely accessorized but celebrated at events that are as unique and memorable as the gem itself, be it a landmark celebration, an exclusive soiree, or a momentous occasion in the highest echelons of society.

    • Oppenheimer Blue

    • Price: $57.5 Million

    The Oppenheimer Blue, named after its previous owner, the famed diamond collector Sir Philip Oppenheimer, is one of the most exceptional blue diamonds in the world. This breathtaking gemstone weighs approximately 14.62 carats, boasting a vivid blue color that ranks among the rarest diamond hues. 

    It made headlines in May 2016 when auctioned for a record-breaking price, underscoring its unmatched allure and extraordinary value. The origin of the Oppenheimer Blue is shrouded in the same mystery and intrigue that envelops many of the world's most remarkable diamonds. Still, its clarity and color suggest it came from the mines of either South Africa or India, both known for producing high-quality blue diamonds.

    Symbolically, the Oppenheimer Blue is a marvel of nature's artistry, representing luxury, exclusivity, and the pinnacle of human achievement in gemstone crafting. Its striking color evokes the vastness of the ocean and the expanse of the sky, imbuing it with a sense of serenity and profound beauty. 

    It also stands as a symbol of wealth, power, and status, coveted by collectors and admired by enthusiasts around the globe. The Oppenheimer Blue is not a diamond for everyday wear but a masterpiece reserved for exceptional occasions or private appreciation by those who possess it. 

    Due to its immense value and significance, it is typically showcased under tight security at premier auction houses or in the vaults of private collectors. Like many of the world's most famous diamonds, the Oppenheimer Blue transcends its physical allure, evoking admiration and wonder as a precious artifact of Earth's beauty and the extraordinary capabilities of human craftsmanship. 

    Whether displayed in a museum, at exclusive exhibitions, or in a private collection, Oppenheimer Blue embodies the zenith of gemstone rarity and desirability, making it a timeless symbol of elegance and splendor.

    • Apollo And Artemis Earrings

    • Price: $57.4 Million

    The Apollo and Artemis Earrings stand as a mesmerizing testament to the beauty and precision of fine jewelry craftsmanship, embodying the divine qualities of their namesakes from ancient mythology. These exquisite pieces feature two spectacular diamonds, one blue (The Apollo) and one pink (The Artemis), each cut flawlessly to enhance their natural radiance and beauty. 

    The Apollo, a 14.54-carat blue diamond, symbolizes youth and power, while The Artemis, a 16-carat pink diamond, represents femininity and love. Together, they capture a balance of strength and grace, making them accessories and emblematic ornaments that communicate a profound narrative of duality and harmony.

    In terms of their usage, the Apollo and Artemis Earrings are reserved for moments that are themselves monumental. Given their unmatched value and the symbolism they carry, these earrings are ideally suited for red-carpet appearances, major award ceremonies, and exclusive high-society gatherings. 

    They are not merely worn but showcased as central pieces that command attention and admiration. These earrings signify more than luxury; they are a statement of artistic and personal expression worn by individuals who appreciate their unmatched beauty and embody the qualities these celestial pieces represent. 

    The Apollo and Artemis Earrings celebrate achievements, personal milestones, or simply the pinnacle of sophisticated elegance, favored by those who wish to make a memorable statement most dazzlingly.

    • L’incomparable Diamond Necklace

    • Price: $55 Million

    The L’incomparable Diamond Necklace is one of the most extraordinary pieces in high jewelry, distinguished not only by its sheer beauty but also by its awe-inspiring history. At the heart of this masterpiece lies the world’s largest internally flawless diamond, weighing 407.48 carats, set amidst a cascade of smaller diamonds totaling 637 carats. 

    This necklace was born out of a chance discovery by a young girl in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who found the diamond in a pile of mining rubble. Over the years, it has been meticulously crafted into a piece that challenges the limits of luxury and craftsmanship.

    In terms of use, the L’incomparable Diamond Necklace is unmatched in its grandeur and is suited for the most prestigious events one can imagine. It signifies more than luxury; it embodies a deep appreciation for history, the craftsmanship of the highest order, and the celebration of magnificence in jewelry form. 

    This necklace is not just worn but is often presented at events that are incomparable in scale and significance, such as royal balls, state functions, and gala events, where it can be showcased amidst an ambiance worthy of its splendor. 

    Its meaning is intertwined with its origin and transformation - a symbol of the miraculous beauty that can emerge from the most humble beginnings and a testament to human ingenuity in creating a piece of unparalleled elegance.

    • Blue Moon Of Josephine 

  • Price: $48.4 Million
  • The Blue Moon of Josephine is an extraordinary gem that epitomizes the pinnacle of rarity and beauty in the world of diamonds. This magnificent 12.03-carat blue diamond boasts an impeccable cushion cut, showcasing a richness in color and clarity that is seldom encountered. 

    Named affectionately after the daughter of a prominent Hong Kong billionaire, Joseph Lau, who purchased the diamond for a record-breaking sum, the Blue Moon of Josephine represents not just an investment in a rare jewel but also a profound gesture of love and regard. It is a gem that transcends its material value, symbolizing profound emotional significance and unparalleled luxury. 

    Reserved for the most special occasions, the Blue Moon of Josephine is adorned to express personal style and a deep appreciation for one of nature's most remarkable creations. Its usage is often associated with events as rare and unique as the diamond, making it a coveted piece among elite collectors and lovers of fine jewelry worldwide.

    • Graff Pink Ring

  • Price: $46.2 Million
  • The Graff Pink Ring is a paragon of luxury and exclusivity in precious gemstones. This breathtaking piece features a rare 24.78-carat pink diamond, renowned for its stunning color, immaculate clarity, and exceptional rectangular cut. 

    Its acquisition by the famed diamond collector Laurence Graff, who aptly renamed it the "Graff Pink," further cemented its status among the elite circles of jewelry connoisseurs. The ring's significance extends beyond its monetary value, symbolizing unparalleled wealth, sophistication, and a deep appreciation for the artistry behind gemstone crafting. 

    Worn on the most exclusive occasions, the Graff Pink Ring is not just an accessory but a statement of unrivaled elegance and prestige. Its use is typically reserved for grand galas, high-society events, and moments where making a lasting impression is paramount. Through its illustrious history and the hands it has graced, the Graff Pink Ring narrates a story of beauty, rarity, and the timeless allure of diamonds.

    • Zoe Diamond

    • Price: $36.2 Million

    The Zoe Diamond, a breathtaking spectacle of precious stones, encapsulates the epitome of rarity and allure with its vivid blue color and astonishing clarity. Weighing in at an impressive 9.75 carats, this gemstone fetched one of the highest per-carat prices at auction for any diamond, reflecting its unparalleled beauty and the demand among connoisseurs for such a rare find. 

    Its name, "Zoe," evokes a sense of sophistication and elegance, fitting for a gem of exceptional quality and brilliance. The diamond's mesmerizing hue and perfect cut represent the pinnacle of gemological artistry, making it a prized possession for any collector or enthusiast.

    In terms of symbolism, the Zoe Diamond carries deep meanings of tranquility, depth, and wisdom, often associated with its striking blue color. It stands as a testament to the wonders of the natural world, showcasing what centuries of natural processes can yield. 

    Beyond its physical beauty, the Zoe Diamond symbolizes the pursuit of perfection and the value of rarity, echoing the desires of humanity to possess that which is both beautiful and unique.

    The Zoe Diamond's use extends beyond mere ornamentation; it is a centerpiece of elite collections and a highlight of the most prestigious exhibitions. Given its extraordinary value and status, it is seldom worn but instead displayed to admire its beauty and craftsmanship. 

    In museums, the Zoe Diamond serves an educational purpose, illustrating the pinnacle of diamond quality and the rich history of gem trade and collection. It represents a crowning jewel for private collectors, symbolizing wealth and a deep appreciation for the rarest treasures that nature and human skill can produce.

    • The Hutton-Mdivani Jadeite Necklace

    • Price: $27.4 Million

    The Hutton-Mdivani Jadeite Necklace stands as one of the most illustrious pieces in the world of fine jewelry, its name honoring the families of Barbara Hutton and Prince Alexis Mdivani, its initial owners. Crafted from the finest quality jadeite, the necklace boasts a series of large, richly green beads, each meticulously chosen for its exceptional color and clarity. 

    It is renowned not just for its breathtaking beauty and the craftsmanship involved in its creation but also for its fascinating provenance, having passed through the hands of royalty and affluent collectors over the decades. This piece represents the pinnacle of jadeite jewelry, a gemstone cherished in Eastern cultures for its purity, harmony, and protection symbolisms.

    Symbolically, the Hutton-Mdivani Jadeite Necklace embodies wealth, prestige, and refined taste. In cultural contexts, particularly within Chinese tradition, jadeite is deeply meaningful and associated with virtues of moral integrity, wisdom, and courage. 

    This necklace, with its unmatched quality and historical significance, thus holds a place not just as a remarkable adornment but as a bearer of cultural and familial heritage. The necklace's rarity and value mean it sees use far beyond personal adornment. It is a collector's gem, often the star of high-profile auctions and prestigious exhibitions in museums around the globe. 

    While it might occasionally grace the neck of a descendant of its original owners or a dignitary at ultra-exclusive events, its primary role today is as an artifact of incredible cultural and aesthetic significance. The Hutton-Mdivani Jadeite Necklace continues to awe and inspire, serving as a tangible link to the past and a testament to the enduring allure of jadeite in the realm of luxury and beyond.


    Tips To Choose The Most Expensive Jewel Suitable For Yourself

    When choosing the most expensive jewel for yourself, it's essential to consider a few things to ensure your investment looks good, lasts long, and means something to you. Here are some critical tips to help you choose:

    Understand your style: 

    Choose a jewel that complements your aesthetic. Whether you lean towards the classic elegance of diamonds or the vibrant allure of colored gemstones, selecting a piece that aligns with your style ensures it becomes a cherished part of your wardrobe.

    Consider the gemstone's rarity and quality: 

    The rarity and quality of the gemstone heavily influence the value of a jewel. Look for stones with exceptional clarity, color, and cut. Certificates of authenticity from reputable gemological laboratories can assure these qualities.

    Historical and cultural significance: 

    Some jewels carry historical legacies or cultural meanings that can add to their value and appeal. Research the history and provenance of a piece to understand its significance and ensure it aligns with what you value.

    Investment potential: 

    The most expensive jewels are often viewed as investments. Consider the gemstone's potential to appreciate over time. Factors like rarity, demand, and market trends can influence investment potential.

    Personal connection and intuition: 

    Beyond the tangible aspects, a personal connection to the jewel is essential. Trust your intuition when selecting a piece. A jewel that sparks joy and feels right will likely become a treasured possession for years.

    Consult with experts: 

    Before investing significantly in an expensive jewel, consult with gemologists, jewelers, or auction house specialists. Their expertise can guide you toward making an informed decision and help authenticate the piece's quality and value.

    Consider customization options: 

    For a truly unique jewel, consider customization. Working with a skilled jeweler to design a bespoke piece allows you to create a jewel that perfectly matches your vision and style, making it uniquely yours.

    How To Avoid Buying Fake Jewelry

    To ensure your jewelry is authentic and avoid fake pieces, you can follow specific strategies that significantly reduce the risks. Here are some essential tips on how to avoid buying phony jewelry:

    Buy jewelry only from trusted and reputable sellers. Established dealers are more reliable and less likely to sell fake items. Whether you're purchasing from a brick-and-mortar high-end store or online, make sure the retailer has a solid reputation and positive reviews from previous customers.

    Always insist on documentation when purchasing high-quality jewelry. This should include certificates of authenticity, grading reports from well-known gemological labs, and any historical or provenance documentation, especially for antique pieces.

    Acquire fundamental knowledge of gemology to enhance your ability to authenticate jewels. Recognizing typical indicators of counterfeit gemstones, such as glass or plastic imitations, can prevent you from making expensive errors.

    Utilize a magnifying glass or jeweler’s loupe to scrutinize the jewelry closely. This can unveil intricate details like hallmarks, craftsmanship finesse, and gemstone clarity, which are challenging to replicate precisely in counterfeit pieces.

    Be cautious of unusually low prices, as they often indicate a counterfeit product. This is particularly true for jewelry claiming to be crafted from precious metals or gemstones. If the price seems too good to be true, it likely is.

    Verify the presence of quality marks, as genuine jewelry crafted from precious metals will bear these stamps. Look for identifiers like "925" for sterling silver or "14K" for 14-carat gold, and make sure they seem genuine.

    Seek advice from a professional jeweler or gemologist if you're uncertain about the authenticity of a piece. Their specialized knowledge and tools enable them to provide expert opinions on whether the item is genuine or counterfeit.

    Exercise extra caution when purchasing jewelry online. Stick to secure (https encrypted) websites operated by reputable jewelers you know. Request high-quality photos or videos of the item to inspect it closely before making a purchase.


    When choosing the most expensive jewel, one ventures beyond mere acquisition into securing a legacy. It's about making a statement that transcends the bounds of time, embedding one's taste and sophistication into a piece that speaks volumes of its beholder's discernment.

    By adhering to the guidance outlined, from ensuring authenticity to valuing historical significance and personal connection, individuals can confidently invest in a gem that not only enhances their collection but stands as a testament to their pursuit of excellence.

    In essence, the most expensive jewel is more than an adornment—it's a symbol of one's legacy. This heirloom encapsulates the pinnacle of aesthetic grandeur and the depths of personal expression.